Using magnetoGVAX and MRI for serially monitoring the afferent arm of the immune response (DCs), and bioluminescent imaging (BLI) for monitoring the efferent arm (T cells), one can apply dual-mode imaging to better understand the time course of antigen capture, lymph node delivery, and clonal T cell expansion. Depending on the timing of administration, immunoadjuvants either reduce or enhance antigen capture and delivery to the lymph nodes. The lack of antigen delivery to lymph nodes can be consistent with the lack of T cell BLI signal in the lymph nodes. In those cases, a massive extranodal T cell proliferation occurs in the liver and spleen. These types of studies can show how dual-mode imaging can be used to evaluate and optimize combinatorial cancer vaccines.